Greece consumes more than double the amount of heating fuel used in Sweden, which has a much cooler climate, due to a lack of proper insulation in most Greek buildings, according to Manthos Santamouris, an associate professor of physics. Domestic power demand has been rising consistently in Greece over the last few years. The energy needs of buildings have increased by 35 percent from 1990 to 2005, according to figures from the Development Ministry. Seventy percent of this energy is required to power heating systems in buildings, while just 18 percent goes toward lighting and air-conditioning units. Greece has not yet adopted an European Union directive requiring all newly built buildings to possess a «green card,» which certifies energy efficiency. The deadline set by Brussels for EU member states to implement the green card system is January 4, 2009.