Only a small percentage of Greek doctors (2.54 percent) go abroad to work, and most, about 800 of them, are from Athens. A survey by the Athens Medical Association (AMA) on doctors immigrating to Greece, showed that of the AMA’s total 22,483 members, 321 are ethnic Greeks (mostly from Cyprus and Albania) and another 448 are foreigners, most from Eastern Europe. Among immigrant doctors, unemployment has hit the largest group, women, hardest. Foreign doctors prefer private practice. Only 11 percent work for a social security fund on a private contract. Even fewer (7.2 percent) work in a hospital or elsewhere in the National Health System. Most doctors from Eastern Europe are women (76 percent) and have no specialization. They come chiefly from Romania, Bulgaria and Russia. Women doctors from European Union member states also outnumber their male colleagues, accounting for 61.2 percent of this group. Most are Italian or German and have specialized in fields such as obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics or internal medicine. In contrast, very few women doctors from countries such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, Jordan, Lebanon or Palestine (13.6 percent of the total number of immigrants from these countries) have a specialization.