Great biodiversity and an impressive geomorphology are the main characteristics of the Tzoumerka mountain range, with several peaks over 2,000 meters high (topped by Mt Kakarditsa at 2,429 meters). The range forms a 28-kilometer-long wall between the Arachthos Gorge in the west and the Acheloos River in the east. The great variations in altitude and climate have favored the development of rich flora and fauna. Above the tree line at 1,200-1,300 meters, the slopes are bare, presenting a typical alpine environment. The eastern side of the range is characterized by steppe-formation meadows and large pastures of shrubs and grasses. Lower down are arbutus, oak, fir, black pine and beech forests. Along the river banks are willows and plane trees. Tzoumerka’s fauna includes wolves, foxes, bears, wild boar, hares, doves, birds of prey and other smaller bird species. Many of these are rare or threatened.